The Relationship Between Homework and Achievement—Still Much of a Mystery - SAGE Journals
Homework is a common and controversial topic in education. It refers to any tasks assigned by teachers to students outside of school hours. Homework can have various purposes and effects, such as enhancing learning, developing skills, fostering responsibility, increasing motivation, promoting self-regulation, and improving communication between parents and teachers. However, homework can also cause stress, frustration, boredom, fatigue, anxiety, conflict, cheating, and inequality among students. Therefore, it is important to understand how homework works and what factors influence its outcomes.
cooper h. (1989). homework
One of the most comprehensive and influential books on this topic is Homework by Harris Cooper (1989). In this book, Cooper presents a systematic review of research concerning the effectiveness of homework. He collects and analyzes all studies conducted in the past 50 years that examined the effects of homework or that compared variations in homework assignments, processes, and contexts. He also applies state-of-the-art techniques for gathering and integrating the research results. His goal is to provide a clear and objective picture of what is known and not known about homework.
In this article, we will summarize and evaluate Cooper's book. We will first explain how he defines and refines the notion of homework. Then we will describe his methodology for conducting the literature review. Next we will present his findings on the effects of homework per se and on the effects of variations in assignments. Finally we will discuss his implications for practice and future research.